Information about project titled 'Head injury mechanisms in FIS World Cup alpine, freestyle skiers and snowboarders'
Head injury mechanisms in FIS World Cup alpine, freestyle skiers and snowboarders
|Details about the project - category||Details about the project - value|
|Project manager:||Sophie Steenstrup|
|Coworker(s):||Arnhild Bakken, Tone Bere, Declan A. Patton|
Introduction: Head injuries represent a concern in skiing and snowboarding, with traumatic brain injuries being the most common cause of death.
Aim: To describe the mechanisms of head and face injuries among World Cup alpine and freestyle skiers and snowboarders.
Methods: We performed a qualitative analysis of videos obtained of head and face injuries reported through the International Ski Federation Injury Surveillance System during 10 World Cup seasons (2006-2016). We analysed 57 head impact injury videos (alpine n= 29, snowboard n=13, freestyle n=15), first independently and subsequently in a consensus meeting.
Results: During the crash sequence, most athletes (84%) impacted the snow with the skis or board first, followed by the upper or lower extremities, buttocks/pelvis, back and, finally, the head. Alpine skiers had sideways (45%) and backwards pitching falls (35%), with impacts to the rear (38%) and side (35%) of the helmet. Freestyle skiers and snowboarders had backwards pitching falls (snowboard 77%, freestyle 53%), mainly with impacts to the rear of the helmet (snowboard 69%, freestyle 40%). There were three helmet ejections among alpine skiers (10% of cases), and 41% of alpine skiing injuries occurred due to inappropriate gate contact prior to falling. Athletes had one (47%) or two (28%) head impacts, and the first impact was the most severe (71%). Head impacts were mainly on snow (83%) on a downward slope (63%).
Conclusion: This study has identified several characteristics of the mechanisms of head injuries which may be addressed to reduce risk.